Dr.Ganja Dictionary


The Dr.Ganja Dictionary is your best resource to learn terms involving hemp, cannabinoids, terpenes, the Endocannabinoid System or even the 8 growth stages of the cannabis plant. Dr.Ganja believes in cultivating beautiful hemp flower, but understanding the complexities of the hemp plant and the goodness it provides is important too. Dig into the Dr.Ganja Dictionary A-Z adventure below and enhance your hemp knowledge today!


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2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)
2-Arachidonoylglycerol or 2-AG is an extensively studied endocannabinoid that plays an essential role in maintaining homeostasis in the body. It was discovered in 1995 and identified as an endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors. 2-AG’s main function is to perform neuromodulation. This means that it acts like a “messenger” when it binds to CB1 and CB2 receptors throughout the body in order to activate certain functions. High levels of 2-AG can be found in the central nervous system where it works to regulate neurons in the brain and the nervous system. 2-AG plays a role in various physiological functions such as neuroinflammation, cognition, emotion, pain management, energy balance, stress response and more.
Acetate in chemistry is a salt or ester of acetic acid.
Acetic Acid
Acetic Acid is a water-miscible liquid that is colorless with a sharp odor. It can be produced by oxidation of acetaldehyde or bacterial action on ethyl alcohol and many more differing processes. It is used to manufacture acetate fibers, as well as to produce a significant of varying esters that are solvents and/or flavoring agents.
Afghani is a well-known cannabis flower strain that can be strikingly potent and just downright delicious. Named for the region from where it is known to have originated, Afghani is also known as “Afghan,” “Afghan Kush” or “Afghanistan.” Cured Afghan green buds are very resinous and pungent with orange hairs and frosted with trichomes. It is considered a pure indica strain that offers an array of sweet yet spicy diesel aromas with hints of citrus and earthy flavors. Effects are often described as extremely relaxing with a full-body high. Users praise the Afghani strain for its effects that relieve stress, pain, insomnia, as well as its euphoric mood boosting qualities. Most also report feelings of increased appetite and hunger. The most common terpenes in the Afghan strain are terpinolene, myrcene and pinene. Afghan Kush has given its genetics to a variety of very popular cannabis strains such as Northern Lights, Blueberry, Amnesia Haze and countless more.
Agricultural Hemp
Agricultural hemp is also known as industrial hemp and is considered an agricultural commodity. It is specifically grown for the use in a wide variety of products that includes food and beverages, personal care products, nutritional supplements, fabrics, textiles, paper, construction, insulation materials and many many more manufactured commodities. It has been established by the 2018 Farm Bill that agricultural hemp is the plant cannabis sativa L and it cannot contain more than 0.3% Delta 9 tetrahydrocannabinol on a dry weight basis.
Analgesics are known as either pain relievers or pain killers. There are three different classifications of analgesics. The first classification of an analgesic is anti-inflammatory drugs. They work to reduce inflammation by reducing inflammatory responses directly at the site of the pain. Anti-inflammatory drugs are best for modest pains like headaches, muscle strains, bruising, minor arthritic pain and more. Examples of an anti-inflammatory analgesic are tylenol and ibuprofen. The second classification are compound analgesics that are medications containing mixtures of a non-opioid with an opioid. This type of analgesic is meant for more serious short term pains. An example of a compound analgesic is low strength codeine or co-codamol. The third classification are opioids analgesics and work by altering the way the brain processes and/or perceives pain. These analgesics are for serious chronic pains. Examples of these analgesics are morphine or fentanyl. Analgesics come in many forms such as capsules, tablets, creams, lotions, patches, syrups, injections and more.
Anandamide is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid molecule that is naturally produced by the human body and is a fundamental element of the endocannabinoid system. It has been found to play an essential role in several human biological functions such as mood, memory appetite, it affects pain stimuli and plays a role in reducing inflammation. Anandamide is a ligand and works to bind to particular receptors to evoke certain responses in the body. It has been found to activate CB1 and CB2 receptors, as well as a receptor known as type 1 Vanilloid receptors that assists in the eradication of cancerous cells. Anandamide was discovered in 1992 by Israeli scientists led by Raphael Mechoulam. It was originally given the name arachidonylethanolamide, which is a word that summarizes its molecular shape and function. Although it was later renamed after the Sanskrit name ananda, which means bliss or divine happiness.
Anthocyanin is pronounced, “an-tho-sigh-a-nin”. Anthocyanins are plant compounds that are responsible for giving vibrant color pigments in plants. They are a part of the flavonoid group and are found in plants, vegetables, fruits, teas, nuts and in cannabis plants. They act like antioxidants and are healthy for plants. They play a beneficial role in protecting plants from ultraviolet light and from other environmental stressors. Anthocyanins can be located by their color in plants. Blueberries, red cabbage, purple cauliflower, purple carrots, eggplant, red onions and plums are examples of fruits and vegetables that contain anthocyanins. Research has shown that anthocyanins can expend their effects through their metabolites. Effects from anthocyanins show they are able to help reduce inflammation and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancers and diabetes. In addition, research also shows that anthocyanins effects also offer mood boosts, focus and memory for humans of all ages.
Aromas are compounds that are perceived by the odor receptor sites of the olfactory tissues in the nasal cavity. It has been determined that there are about ten basic odors: 1. Fragrant 2. Woody / Resinous 3. Fruity (non-citrus) 4. Chemical 5. Mint / Peppermint 6. Sweet 7. Popcorn 8. Lemon 9. Pungent 10. Decay Humans are able to perceive smells with the olfactory receptors located in the nose. Each smell can activate specific olfactory neurons in order to decipher which particular aroma (s) are active and whether or not they are safe. The brain can decipher a multitude of aromas at once. This is known as a “combinatorial” process that allows humans to smell more aromas than we have specific receptors for.
Backcross (BX)
Backcross, or BX, is a process in which a grower decides to undergo when they have specific traits in a plant that they would like to retain for future strains. With cannabis, it is also a type of breeding selection that allows for the more desirable targeted traits to pass from one parent plant to the offspring.
Botanical derived terpenes or BDT are compounds that are found and isolated from typical plants such as fruits, spices or herbs. The terpenes are what give plants their specific aromas and flavors. They are also meant for attracting pollinators, as well as to deter pests and insects. BDT’s are much less expensive and more readily available than cannabis derived terpenes (CDT). In regard to chemistry, it is known that BDT’s are structurally the same as CDT’s and can be synthesized to imitate CDT’s.
Bisabolol is a natural monocyclic sesquiterpene alcohol that is a colorless and viscous oil. It is most often found in German chamomile, Myoporum Crassifolium (New Caledonia) and of course various cannabis strains. It provides a delicate scent evoking a mixture of apple, honey and chamomile aromas. Strains high in bisabolol typically elicit sweetly floral and fruity flavors and aromas. Its effects are known to be relaxing and soothing, perfect for lifting mood and relieving anxiety. It also is known to reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines and because of this it also works similar to an analgesic to alleviate minor pains. Bisabolol is most often used in skin care products as it has shown to have skin healing effects, as well as anti-bacterial / anti-fungal, antioxidant effects and much more. Bisabolol has a boiling of 307.4℉ (153 ℃).
A blunt is made by stuffing a tobacco wrap with ground cannabis flower and rolling it up to smoke. Blunt wraps are sold in numerous flavors, but emptying a cigar like a Swisher Sweets, will work just fine too. Since all blunt wraps are made out of tobacco, the wrap will contribute a light energetic buzz to your high. They are similar in size to a medium sized cigar and will burn for a solid smoke sesh. So take the blunt straight to the dome or invite some of the homies to puff puff pass with you.
A bong is a type of water pipe used to smoke cannabis or other herbal substances including tobacco. It is designed to filter water and to cool smoke in order to obtain larger smoother hits and avoid smaller harsh hits. Some bong users add ice cubes to enhance the cooling effect. The bong consists of a bubbled base that holds water with an angled hole that receives a downstem for a bowl insert where the cannabis is placed. This allows the smoke to channel through to the base prior to it rising through the downstem, up through the mouthpiece of the bong and into the lungs of the smoker. The origin of the bong is often debated, but those who have chronicled the history of the bong do agree that the bong is many many centuries old and may have originated in either Thailand, China or Africa. Despite the unknown origins of the bong, there are numerous types of designs from the most simplest and functional to extremely elaborate designs and colors.
Borneol is a prevalent terpene found throughout the world. Flowers such as sunflowers, roots such as ginger and herbs like rosemary and thyme all produce the compound. It also naturally occurs in many plants native to Asia and many other tropical plants throughout the world. The earliest doctors leading up to today are aware of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory benefits borneol offers. Currently it is also used as an ingredient for digestive aids, it is known to improve circulation and can help lower fevers. Borneol has been found to be quite effective as a topical pain reliever and has several other beneficial applications. This compound gives off a menthol aroma mixed with hints of an earthy herbal funk. The scent easily repels pests, but humans enjoy the scent, so it is often added to insect repellents, perfumes and colognes.
Bubble Hash
Bubble hash is a potent type of hemp concentrate that is captured in a solventless extraction process. It’s become known as “bubble hash” because it is prepared differently than traditional hash and when heated it tends to bubble. During the extraction process, bags of ice water are used to freeze trichomes so that they will release from the flower buds. The compounds released during this process continue to move through a series of screens leaving more plant material behind and eventually forming into bubble hash. It ranges in color from a light golden shade to a darker brown.
A bubbler is a hand held water pipe. Just like a typical pipe, a bubbler is designed with a mouthpiece connected to a stem, and a fixed bowl with a carb. But what makes the bubbler unique is that beneath the bowl is a water chamber that works to filter the smoke for a more cool and much smoother throat hit. A bubbler with just enough water will produce nice bubbles, but will not splash into the mouthpiece or flood the bowl. There are several varieties of bubbler designs. The Hammer, the sherlock, the sidecar, double bubblers (dual filtration action) and bubblers for concentrates only. A bubbler is more portable than a bong, delivers smoother hits than a dry pipe and deserves a place in every cannabis connoisseur's collection of smoke delivery systems.
Bud is a slang term used in reference to the smokable flowering parts of hemp plants. In botanist terms, a bud is a small outgrowth that has yet to mature and can develop into branches, leaves or flowers.
Butane Hash Oil (BHO)
Butane hash oil is a potent concentrate that is made by using liquid butane to extract delta 9 resin from the hemp plant. The extraction process requires a high pressure, high temperature system that mingles raw hemp and liquid butane. The butane acts as a solvent and is able to leach out the THC from the plant matter. BHO will then go through a butane elimination process to ensure the oil is safe to consume. This practice is accomplished with a vacuum system that creates an environment that enables butane to evaporate by converting it from its liquid form into a gas. When it has completely evaporated, the BHO is safe and ready to enjoy. BHO does come in a long list of differing forms such as shatter, budder, crumble, wax, etc. Each BHO concentrate has its own unique consistency, texture and/or color. Whatever version of this amazing concentrate you have, it is best enjoyed in a dab rig or a vaporizer.
Camphene is a terpene found in various conifer trees, cannabis and herbs. It is the primary terp in camphor oil and can also be found in citronella, sage oil, ginger oil and valerian root. The cyclic monoterpene emits a very strong earthy sweet herbal spice aroma. It is often an additive to fragrances and flavorings, but it is commonly found as an ingredient in modern medicine for analgesic topicals. It also has the capacity for other therapeutic benefits such as antimicrobial, antiviral and pain relieving effects.
Camphor (cinnamomum camphora) is considered a terpene and is derived directly from the wood of the camphor tree. It has a strong earthy / wood aroma. The extract is taken directly from the camphor tree. After extraction, the terpene typically undergoes a steam-distillation process to create camphor oil. Camphor oil absorbs quite quickly into the skin and can help relieve pain and inflammation, and irritated and itchy skin. Topical use is abundant due to its antibacterial, antifungal and antiinflammatory properties. It has been useful in helping to heal skin infections, wounds, and relieve arthritic symptoms. It can also work towards reducing wrinkles and improving skin elasticity while increasing natural production of collagen. Camphor oil needs to be diluted with a carrier prior to skin application.
Cannabaceae is a family of flowering plants better known as the hemp family. Within this cannabaceae family there are 170 species that are grouped into 11 genera. This includes Cannabis (hemp), Humulus (hops) and Celtis (hackberries). Cannabaceae is included with the order of Rosales, which are a family of climbing plants with petalless flowers and one-seeded fruits. Cannabaceae are dioecious plants, which means there are distinctly male or female plants and are pollinated by the wind.
A cannabinoid is a specific class of compound that is produced in the resin glands of the cannabis plant. The most well known cannabinoids are THC and CBD. The cannabis plant produces over 100 known cannabinoids. Each compound contains uniquely different characteristics and offers differing effects/benefits. Cannabinoids have the ability to bind to receptors in a natural biological system known as the endocannabinoid system or ECS. The ECS plays a role in regulating certain functions of the body such as regulating sleep, mood and appetite. When a cannabinoid binds to a ECS receptor it has the potential to produce feelings of euphoria, help relieve pain, anxiety or insomnia symptoms and can stimulate appetite. However, some cannabinoids such as CBD do not cause intoxicating effects.
Cannabis refers to the dioecious plant of a single genus Cannabis or most notably the hemp Cannabis sativa. It is native to East Asia. It has leaves, bud flowers and has a strong fibrous stalk. Cannabis has been cultivated by people all over the world for thousands of years. It is known not only known for its psychoactive properties, but for the plant's countless beneficial uses. The origin of the word comes from the Greek kánnabis, whose literal translation is hemp.
Cannabis Derived Terpenes
Cannabis derived terpenes, or CDT, are natural compounds found in the trichomes of cannabis plants. These aromatic hydrocarbons are sticky glands found throughout the surfaces of the buds, leaves and stems of the plant. They play many parts in the growth and development of the plant. CDT produce specific aromas and flavors. They also contribute to the various colors of the flower buds and leaves. CDT protect the plants from environmental stressors and pathogens too. And they can also offer support by somehow triggering immune responses from the plant. There are an estimated 400 or so cannabis terps. Scientists are rigorously studying their effects on the plant, and the effects of their interactions with cannabinoids. CDT are often isolated and then reintroduced to various hemp products such as tinctures, distillates, skin care products and more.
Cannabis Oil
Cannabis oil is an extract from the cannabis plant. It contains the same active compounds found in the plant. The variety of compounds found in cannabis oil are dependent upon the specific strain in which it was extracted from. Cannabis oil is used for a variety of ailments including chronic pain, anxiety, inflammation, depression, insomnia and more.
Cannabis Plant Growth Stages
It is a general consensus that there are four stages of growth which are: Germination, Seedling, Vegetative and Flowering. It is important to understand the growth stages of cannabis plants so that environmental conditions for maximizing potential growth can be achieved. Stewart Maxwell of the Elevated Botanist extends the cannabis growth cycle to eight stages. In his article he writes the eight stages of growth are as follows: Seed Storage (Dormancy), Seed Germination, Seedling, Vegetative Growth, Pre-Flowering, Early Flowering, Mid-Flowering, Late Flower (Senescence).
Caryophyllene (β-Caryophyllene) is a naturally occuring sesquiterpene. It has earned GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) status and has been approved for food use by the FDA. It is the sesquiterpene responsible for the spicy essence in black pepper and is an essential component of cloves, cannabis, hops, basil, oregano, lavender, rosemary, cinnamon, copaiba oil, ylang ylang and malabathrum. The flavors and aromas are spicy with a tinge of sweet like cloves and cinnamon can be. Its effects do not induce feelings of euphoria, but they are somewhat stimulating that lend towards mood enhancement and anti-anxiety relief. Caryophyllene is the only terpene that can act like a cannabinoid as it has the ability to bind to CB-2 receptors and therefore activate anti-inflammatory effects throughout the body’s peripheral organs. It is said that the caryophyllene molecule is much larger than your typical terpene. It also contains a special structure including a cyclobutane ring, which is rarely found in nature and is not found in any other terpene. Caryophyllene has direct benefits for colitis, diabetes, anxiety / depression and Alzheimer like diseases. In addition, it has demonstrated synergy with certain cancer medications to work towards reduction of cancer cell growth. It has a boiling of 266 ℉ (130 ℃).
CB Receptors
The endocannabinoid system or ECS is made up of endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors and enzymes that work to synthesize and help degrade endocannabinoids. The effects of cannabinoids and endocannabinoids are mediated by two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and they are CB1 and CB2. CB1 receptors are most heavily located in several regions of the brain and in lower amounts throughout the central nervous system (CNS). CB1 receptors mediate much of the psychoactive effects of cannabinoids that causes one to feel a sense of euphoria. CB2 receptors have a higher presence throughout the body’s CNS, a number of immune cells and neurons. CB1 and CB2 receptors couple to inhibitory G proteins and just like GPCRs CB receptors are susceptible to the same pharmacological influences. Partial agonism with functional selectivity and inverse agonism all have crucial roles in the bodies response to each specific cannabinoid receptor ligands.
Cannabichromene, or CBC, is one of the 6 main cannabinoids that is most prominent in medical research. It is a powerful, non-psychoactive cannabinoid. It does not elicit a “high.”It has shown benefits as a synergist, which means it works well with other cannabinoids, otherwise known as the entourage effect. CBC has shown to block pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis (damage to the joints in the hands, knees, hips and spine), which is the most common arthritis affecting millions of people throughout the world. Combined with THC and/or CBD, CBC appears to relieve depression and pain and inflammation, as well as acne and Alzheimer's disease.
Cannabichromevarin or CBCV is a compound found in hemp. It is considered a short-chain homologue of the CBC cannabinoid and is the activated form of CBCVA. CBCV develops in very small concentrations and little is known about its effects. But, most speculate that it is very similar to the more commonly occurring CBC.
Cannabidiol, or CBD, has become more widely known as the amount of studies and testing by scientists from around the world has increased. For decades it has been known to possess incredible healing and therapeutic benefits. CBD is the second most abundant compound found in hemp plants. Scientists have established CBD as a safe non-addictive compound that does not cause euphoric or intoxicating effects in humans or animals. CBD has also been found to have extraordinary benefits for restorative health. CBD is an anti-inflammatory agent and works to prevent or reduce inflammation in both the brain and body, as well as temporarily alleviate pain. As an anti-inflammatory agent, CBD has a significant effect on the body’s ability to maintain homeostasis when faced with everyday stressors. This is why CBD has been found to offer a very wide array of potential benefits for numerous ailments. CBD is now used worldwide by those seeking an all natural non-psychoactive alternative solution to pharmaceutical medications in order to avoid adverse side effects or reactions. CBD goes way beyond symptom relief to help the body heal itself; it interacts naturally with the body's Endocannabinoid system to produce healing effects at a molecular level.
Cannabidiolic Acid or CBDA is a compound found in the hemp plant that is non-psychoactive. CBDA is the acidic precursor to cannabidiol or CBD. When CBDA is heated it goes through decarboxylation and chemically transforms into CBD. CBDA has several potentials for health benefits such as anti-inflammation, anti- tumor, anti-nausea, anti-anxiety and much more.
Cannabidiol monomethylether, or CBDM, is assumed to be a naturally occurring compound in cannabis plants. Its existence has yet to be completely authenticated by scientists. It was first mentioned in a 1972 Japanese study involving cannabinoid pharmacology. There is insufficient research to understand if there are any beneficial effects or how CBDM is being produced in labs. Any CBDM found on the market is most certainly synthetic. Again, due to the fact that it has not been completely established as a naturally occurring cannabinoid in hemp plants.
Cannabidivarin or CBDV is a decarboxylated form of CBDVA and does not lend any psychoactive effects when consumed. Hemp strains high in CBD are most likely to have a higher concentration of the CBDV compound. The research presently being conducted has been centered around CBDV and its effects on epileptic seizures. It is generally agreed that current research has shown that CBDV affects the neurochemical pathways of capsaicin receptors involved with various types of epilepsy. Research has also found that CBDV acts as an agonist of CB1 receptors and may inhibit nausea. More research is being conducted on CBDV and its potentials for medicinal purposes.
Cannabielsoin or CBE is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in hemp. CBE forms from a metabolite process that begins with the ingestion of CBD. With the assistance of liver enzymes, CBD converts into CBE. Researchers have isolated these liver enzymes and have applied them to CBD to convert it to CBE outside of the body. This process has enabled researchers to continue researching CBE, but potential benefits of CBE are not known, as well as how it works in the human body. In addition, there is still a current debate as to whether CBE should be considered a natural cannabinoid or a synthetic cannabinoid.
Cannabigerol, or CBG, is most often referred to as the mother of all cannabinoids. It has been estimated as such due to the fact that other cannabinoids derive from cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), which is the acidic form of CBG. CBG is found in very small quantities than other phytocannabinoids. This means that CBG products are rare and can be quite expensive. CBG has been found to bind to both CB1 and CB2 receptors in the Endocannabinoid System (ECS). It shows promise in enhancing pleasure and motivation, regulating appetite and sleep, as well as alleviating pain.CBG does not have any psychotropic effects, so it does not give you a “high.”
Cannabicyclol, or CBL, is a minor cannabinoid found in cannabis plants and was discovered in 1964. CBL is found in small amounts and not much is known about this elusive compound. What is known is that CBL is more often found in cannabis strains that have higher amounts of cannabichromene, or CBC. It is considered a “photochemical product” due to its formation process when cannabichromene begins to decarboxylate. The breakdown begins similar to any other decarboxylation process with heat, light or considerable acidic conditions. It is understood that CBL does not induce any psychoactive effects due to the fact that it lacks a double bond in its molecular composition.
Cannabicyclolic Acid or CBLA is a rare non-psychoactive compound found in cannabis. CBLA is formed when Cannabichromenic Acid (CBCA) is exposed to heat or UV light and as it degrades it converts into CBLA. Therefore this compound is not found living in cannabis plants and is only a result of environmental alterations. It is found in low concentrations and was first isolated in 1972 by researchers. Very little is known regarding this compound. However, researchers have found that it is one of the more stable cannabinoid acids. Its stability creates a resistance to decarboxylation.
Cannabinol, or CBN, is a minor cannabinoid that is non-intoxicating and is created when THC ages. Due to this, it is most often found in high amounts in older cannabis. The potential benefits of CBN and the effects on the body are currently being researched more and more. Studies show evidence that CBN may be a potent antibacterial agent, an appetite stimulator and an anti-inflammatory agent. It shows potential as a synergist and seems to increase euphoric effects of THC and can induce sleepiness.
Chlorophyll is an organic pigment molecule that grants green plants their color by absorbing sunlight. It works towards assisting plants to create energy through a process called photosynthesis in order to grow. Chlorophyll can be found in the tiny networks in the plant’s cells called chloroplasts. The chloroplasts are where the process of photosynthesis occurs. The energy transferred from the light absorption is used by the plant to convert carbon dioxide from the air and water into glucose. The plant will use this glucose in combination with other nutrients found in the soil to grow new leaves, branches or stems. And in turn will also release oxygen into the air.
Cinnamon Bark Essential Oil
Cinnamon bark essential oil is derived from the native Sri Lanka tree known as Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Cinnamon oil is often used for aromatherapy, massage therapy, topical care products, food and beverages. It is known to be rich in antioxidants and is a known key ingredient in detoxifying blends that work to help a reduced immune system regain its strength. It is often included in bath blends, salves or soaps used to soothe, cleanse and tone skin or the scalp. Cinnamon oil can also promote feelings of relaxation and mood enhancement. This essential oil is quite potent and hot. It is important to dilute cinnamon oil with a carrier before applying it directly onto skin. Cinnamon oil has a pungent aroma with strong hints of sweetness and earthy spice.
Citral Terpenes
Citral terpenes support immune health and function. Citral terpenes help protect humans against bacteria and viruses. The citral terps are able to bind to receptors in the body and trigger several physiological and psychological effects, particularly mood boosts. This is why essential oils have played a role in human history for hundreds of years. And in nature they help protect plants and animals by defending them against predators and/or pathogens too. They are found in citrus fruits like oranges, lemons, grapefruits, clementines, mandarins, kumquats and more. Citrus terps are also found in cannabis. They contribute to the entourage effect in order to alleviate discomfort from minor or chronic pains and anxiety by relaxing the mind, calming emotions and offering sleep support.
A clone is created when one takes a branch cutting from a mature cannabis plant. This cutting is planted in order to grow another full grown plant that maintains the same genetic makeup of the original “mother” plant that it was taken from. In order to grow a clone, the cutting should be around 6 inches in length, but cannot be planted immediately. Cuttings should be placed into a cloner or root cubes in order to allow the cutting to grow roots. To stimulate growth of the roots a rooting hormone is often used. When the roots have fully developed, the clone can then be planted in pots or into the ground. And since clones are exact genetic copies of their mother, they will always be female. And it also guarantees that each subsequent generation will have the same characteristics such as terpenes, cannabinoids and effects.
Clove Essentail Oil
Clove essential oil derives from the Syzygium aromaticum L tree and its leaves, buds and stems. The main chemical compounds in clove oil are Eugenol, Eugenyl acetate and beta-Caryophyllene. The tree is native to the Indonesian Maluku Islands, but is now grown in various regions such as India and Sri Lanka. Traditional Eastern and Western medicines have used clove oil for many many years. Clove oil was integrated into medicinal applications for microbial defense and treatments for viruses, bacteria and infections. It has also been used for digestive issues, support of the respiratory system, in oral care and much more. Clove oil is collected through the process of steam distillation. The buds from the tree are dried and then heated. The aromatics of the bud vaporize in the steam and as it cools, the remnants are captured. Cloves have a bold peppery aroma with hints of spicy-sweet and earthy floral notes. Clove essential oil is a part of countless herbal therapies for dental care, hygiene products, muscle salves, balms and lotions. It is also widely used as a flavor enhancing spice for many food and beverage recipes.
Delta 10 THC
Delta 10 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is known as an “elusive” cannabinoid as it is most often confused for Cannabichromene (CBC). Delta 10 is not a naturally occurring cannabinoid and is created through a process that necessitates a type of catalyst to create it such as a food grade radical initiator to stabilize the reactivity of the radicals to provide higher yields of Delta 10 THC. D10’s isolated crystals develop in smaller concentrations than most other cannabinoids. Delta 10 THC is created through an extraction and distillation process. D10 has proven to deliver benefits and effects to serve both medicinal and recreational consumers. D10 is most often sold in the form of oils,tinctures, edibles, vape cartridges, disposable vape pens and even flower. The compound Δ10-THC is legally derived from hemp and offers a “high” similar to Delta 9 THC.
Delta 8 THC
Delta 8 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is a cannabinoid that occurs in much smaller concentrations than most other cannabinoids. Delta 8 is considered to be an isomer that forms as Delta-9 THC ages and oxidizes. This process increases the stability of the Delta 8 molecular structure so that it does not degrade as easily and lasts much longer over time. It should be noted that Delta-8 THC and Delta 9-THC contain similarities in their molecular structure. Both contain double bonds, but D8 contains the bond on the 8th carbon chain and not on the 9th. For that reason, D8 and D9 THC react similarly within the Endocannabinoid receptors in the body as a result of their similar presentation of structure and properties. The compound Delta 8-THC is now being legally derived from hemp and offers a euphoric “high” similar to Delta 9 THC.
Delta 9 THC
Delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) works by attaching to Endocannabinoid system receptors throughout the brain and the Nervous System. Effects may last for a few hours, but is dependent on frequency of use, dosage, body weight and/or cardiac activity level. Delta 9 is known to be lipophilic, which means that it can readily attach to fat. As D9 THC attaches to fat cells it has the ability to move from the fat cells into the bloodstream and may remain in the body for longer periods of time. D9 can be detected in the body for up to 20 hours after it has been ingested. The compound Δ9-THC is now being legally derived from hemp and offers a euphoric “high.”
Delta 9-THC-O
Delta 9 THC-O, or D9-O, is a form of D9 THC with acetate added to the THC molecule. D9-O is a relative of THC, but it is a synthetic form that begins with the hemp derived D9 compound. It is not classified as a cannabinoid due to the fact that it does not occur naturally in cannabis. There is little to no published data on the effects of D9 THC-O acetate in humans. One study with animals determined in the results that it may have twice the potency of THC. It is generally accepted that acetylation is a safe process. However, this understanding is based on the impact of acetylation on oral ingestion and not inhalation.
Double Bond
A double bond is considered a covalent bond (A sharing of electrons to form electron pairs between atoms.) between two atoms containing four bonded electrons instead of simply two electrons in a single bond. Double bonds often develop between two carbon atoms. The delta-9-THC compound has a molecular composition with single covalent bonds and one pair that is a double bond (in total it is six carbon atoms arranged in a cyclohexane ring bonded to two hydrogen atoms). Double bonds are the key aspect in cannabinoid compounds that induce psychoactive effects, as well as the potential for minimal or greater highs. Any cannabinoid that lacks double bonds in their molecular composition do not have psychoactive effects and therefore cannot intoxicate a user.
Endocannabinoid System (ECS)
The endocannabinoid system was discovered in 1992 by three researchers from Hebrew University in Jerusalem. The ECS is the largest receptor system and is the primary regulator of homeostasis in the body. This process includes interactions with the brain, the endocrine and immune systems. It is able to regulate all over the body due to its CB1 and CB2 receptors. CB receptors can be located in neurons within the central nervous system and in immune cells throughout the peripheral nervous system. It is considered a “retrograde system”, which infers it regulates systems via a negative feedback loop that activates postsynapse synthesizing. This is followed by the ECS releasing endocannabinoids targeting specific cannabinoid receptors. The ECS is a complicated system whose functions are still not fully known or understood. But the experts believe it plays a primary role in the ideal operation of the body.
Endocannabinoids, also known as endogenous cannabinoids, are molecules that are made by the body that are similar to phytocannabinoids found in hemp plants. It has been found that endocannabinoids play a key role in multiple internal processes including maintaining homeostasis. There are numerous known endocannabinoids and have shown to be active in anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-metastatic roles. Studies show support that endocannabinoids also have a role in neurotransmitter, immune system and mitochondrial function. Anandamide and 2-AG (2-Archidonyl glycerol) are considered to be the two main endocannabinoids in the body.
Entourage Effect
The entourage effect was first recognized and coined by researchers Raphael Mechoulam and Shimon Ben-Shabat in 1998. They specifically were referring to their findings of inactive compounds somehow improving the therapeutic abilities of endocannabinoids 2-AG & anandamide. By 2001, Ethan Russo and John McPartland revealed in their published research paper support for Mechoulam and Ben-Shabat’s hypothesis of an “entourage effect”. They had found evidence to maintain the idea that “..secondary compounds in cannabis may enhance the beneficial effects of THC” and “may reduce THC-induced anxiety, cholinergic deficits and immunosuppression.” More recent studies have revealed that the consumption of full-spectrum cannabis products that include terpenes may allow for significantly more relief compared to cannabinoid isolates. It is commonly agreed upon by the supporters of the entourage effect theory that the blend and synergy of assorted cannabinoids produce effects that are not possible with isolated compounds. Each ingredient contributes to a whole that is greater than all its individual parts alone. And due to the chemical reactions of each compound, including terpenes and flavonoids, the resounding effects play a huge part in their value as possible curatives for a considerable amount of adverse human conditions.
Eucalyptus Oil
Eucalyptus oil comes from the eucalyptus tree. It contains an abundance of chemical compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins. Eucalyptus oil has many positive properties that offer several benefits. It is considered an anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiseptic and contains antioxidants. The oil from the eucalyptus offers a pleasant cooling sensation when applied to the skin. It works to reduce pain and inflammation, soothes sunburns and can help skin heal faster. Eucalyptus oil needs to be diluted with a carrier prior to applying to skin.
Extra Virgin Olive Oil
Olive oil is considered a type of vegetable oil. It is made from the fruit of the Olea europaea L. tree. The oil is extracted by pressing / crushing the olives, thereby releasing its oils for collection. Extra virgin olive oil or EVOO is the highest grade olive oil according to the standards of the International Olive Council (IOC). Due to the clean process of pressing, EVOO has the most antioxidants of all olive oils. EVOO is used in anti-inflammatory skin care products like lotions, soaps and salves. It helps to lock in moisture and is best for adding extra moisturization of dry skin. It is also used for cooking and can be found in countless recipes. EVOO contains numerous minor polyphenols, but its main phenolic compounds are oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. These are the most abundant and healthy antioxidants in EVOO that offer anticancer, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory properties.
Fatty Acid
A fatty acid is made up of hydrocarbon chains and carboxylic acid groups. This unique combination is the essential grouping that make-up lipids. Each fatty acid varies in length and hydrocarbon saturation rates. Fatty acids also control physical qualities of the lipid such as melting point and fluidity. Due to fatty acids, lipids are also hydrophobic, which means it is incapable of dissolving. Endocannabinoid compounds are a by-product of omega fatty acids and are what enable binding to cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, as well as a few other targeted binding areas.
Fenchone is a terpene compound that is considered to be a monoterpenoid. It is one of the significant components of absinthe and is the essential oil of fennel. Other sources of fenchone are cedarwood, African wild sage and Spanish lavender. It has a very strong earthy yet mentholated camphor-like aroma. It is often used in aromatherapy and it is generally recognized that it contains beneficial anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and analgesic properties. It is often used to repel insects, heal wounds and is useful in regulating yeast infections. Fenchone has a boiling point of 380℉ (194℃).
A flavonoid is a phytochemical found in a variety of fruits and vegetables, as well as grains, bark, roots, stems and flowers. Flavonoids have six subclasses: anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, flavanones, flavones, flavonols and polymers. Examples of foods containing the highest amounts of flavonoids are: berries, apples, citrus fruits like lemons or grapefruit and grapes; leafy greens like spinach and broccoli; legumes, onions, and tea leaves and wine. Some research has shown that flavonoids have properties that are capable of reducing inflammation, regulating cell enzyme function, inhibiting oxidation and more. Studies have their limitations, but seem to continue to exhibit the health benefits of flavonoids.
Full Melt
Considered the highest quality bubble hash, Full Melt is so refined that when heated, it bubbles away all possible residue. Hence, the name “full melt”. The best quality bubble hash is passed through very restrictive mesh screens in order to keep all plant material from passing through. This ensures the collection of the potent plant resin only and the cleanest bubble hash hits every time.
Gary Payton
Gary Payton is a former professional basketball player for the NBA. Payton's career was long and successful as a point guard for the Seattle Supersonics, Milwaukee Bucks, Lakers, Celtics and the Miami Heat. He was known for his famous trash-talking on the court and holds the record for the 21st highest scorer in NBA history. GP is also the namesake for a cannabis hybrid strain that is a cross between the Y and Snowman. It is also known as Cookies Gary Payton or CGP. GP bud is often described as being sweet mini-minty frosty nugs with bright orange pistils that give off pungent aromas of an earthy sour diesel.
Genetic Variation
Genetic variation is exhibited between organisms of the same species by the expression or non-expression of particular genes. The combination of genetic variation with environmental variations are the main causes for the variety of phenotypes. Each individual cannabis strain has its own genetic makeup that influences the plant's characteristics and effects. Genetic variation accounts for the differences in the cannabis plant's size, color, density, effects, potency, aroma, taste and even the harvest yield.
Hexahydrocannabinal, or HHC, is only found in trace concentrations and has not been isolated in enough quantities for consumption until now. With HHC, all the double-bonds have broken and been replaced with hydrogen. This process is referred to as hydrogenation. The difference between HHC and THC is quite subtle, but it still changes the structure of the molecule, as well as how it binds to the Endocannabinoid receptors and pain receptors in the human body. HHC offers similar effects and potency as THC. It has been said that HHC is more potent than Delta 8-THC, but slightly less potent than Delta 9-THC.
HHCO or hexahydrocannabinol acetate does not occur naturally in the hemp plant like HHC. It is a hemp derivative and is considered a hydrogenated compound. In order to synthesize HHCO, HHC must be made first. Manufacturers take hemp extract that contains high amounts of delta 8-THC. Then through the process of hydrogenation, the d8 chemically alters into hexahydrocannabinol (HHC). Next, acetic anhydride is applied to the HCC compound and it becomes HHCO. This is a process known as acetylation. It is an induced chemical reaction whereby a hydrogen atom is substituted for an acetyl group in a compound. This process boosts the potency up between 1.5 times and 3 times that of HHC.
Humulene is a terpene that is found in abundance in various cannabis and hop plants. It is also present in numerous herbs and spices like sage, clove, basil, black pepper, coriander and ginseng. Humulene presents a fresh earthy herbal / wood-like aroma and tastes bitter with a bit of lasting spice. It is a relative of beta-caryophyllene with a contrasting pattern of atoms in its molecule. Humulene is said to contribute to the cannabis plant's natural defense system against fungus and pests. It is considered to be a sesquiterpene, which are known to have slightly more intense odors and have substantial anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. It has shown positive benefits in anti-inflammatory effects when applied topically. This terpene has also shown to relieve pain and suppress appetite. Humulene has a boiling point of 222.8 ℉ (106 ℃).
Hyaluronic Acid
Hyaluronic acid is an aminoglycan that can be found in the synovial fluid of joints and the vitreous humor of the eyes. It helps skin to stretch and flex easier, as well as reduces skin lines and wrinkles. It has also shown to work towards healing skin wounds faster and reducing scarring. Hyaluronic acid is used to not only heal wounds, but skin ulcers, burns, eczema and bed sores as well. It is great for lubrication of the joints and allows them to move more smoothly, protects them from wear and can help to reduce swelling / inflammation. As the body ages, it produces less collagen and hyaluronic acid helps boost collagen production.This benefit will work to keep the skin looking healthy and supple.
Indica is recognized and used as a long standing term that classifies the buds effects. But, Indica is a botanical term that refers to the plant’s structure and not the effects it provides. Indica flowers will not always deliver a “couch lock” effect, just like sativas will not always energize consumers. Initially indica flowers were grown in northern climates that tend to be much cooler with shorter growth cycles. Indica plants are much shorter and their buds are much more dense compared to other flowers grown in warmer climates.
A joint is a cigarette-like roll made by stuffing ground hemp flower into rolling papers. Rolling papers are thin and come in various sizes such as singles, 1 ¼ , 1 ½ , wide, slims and cones. Flavored papers are also available in flavors like grape and chocolate. The thinner the paper, the less it will affect the flavor transfer of the herb while smoking. Thicker papers tend to burn slower, whereas thin papers burn quickly. Rolling takes practice for a proper joint smoking experience, but overtime it will prove to be a rewarding lifelong enterprise. Joints are best anytime of the day or night, and with or without company.
As the hemp plant matures resin glands form on the bud flowers. These resinous glands are known as trichomes, which resemble miniature crystals that make the bud appear frosted with a fine sugar. Within these mini crystals is where the plant\\\'s famous compounds such as THC and CBD are found in addition to terpenes and many other compounds that enrich the hemp plant with its psychoactive effects and analgesic properties. When the trichomes grow in abundance and then dry out, they detach from the plant. Once the trichomes are collected it becomes a collection of kief. At this point, oxidation has taken place and the kief develops a golden brownish color. It can be used in joints, bowls or in a vaping sesh. If enough kief is available it can be pressed into a ball of hash. Kief usually contains a high amount of THC and one hit of it can be intense. We recommend using it on top of flower as pure kief can be harsh.
Landrace is a term used for original hemp strains that have been growing naturally in their wild native environment allowing for the plant's genetics to go through the process of natural selection and environmental adaptation. Cannabis plants adapt well to various environments and many centuries ago humans were able to take the plant with them wherever they traveled throughout the world. Landrace strains have originated in the Middle East, the African continent, Central South Asia, and Central and South America. It is estimated that there are more than 30 original landrace hemp strains from all around the globe. The most notable examples of landrace strains are Afghan, Hindu Kush, Thai, Acapulco Gold and Puna Buddaz.
Legend Of The Four Thieves
The legend of the four thieves goes back to France during the Black Plague. According to the legend, during the plague there were four young brothers whose parents were herbalists. Due to the plague, the herbalists' income was cut short and their family was in need of a solution if they were going to survive. It was then that the four brothers became the four thieves by using a “secret” herbal recipe to protect themselves from the dangers of the deadly plague. They would rob graveyards and the homes of the sick and dying. Eventually the thieves were caught and forced to share their secret life-saving concoction. There are multiple claims to the recipe of their potion. It mostly involves a combination of these assorted ingredients: vinegar, rosemary, sage, camphor, lavender, clove, cinnamon, eucalyptus and lemon. It is a legend after all, so whether or not there is any truth to the story or not is up to your discretion. There is much historical evidence for the time frame of this legend that most essential oils were not readily available in France during that era. However, this should not discount the benefits of plant compounds when it comes to the skin, body and mind.
Lemon Essential Oil
Lemon essential oil is a derivative of the lemon tree. The lemon tree is native to Asia and is thought to be a cross between bitter orange and citron. Citron is said to be the original species that all citrus fruits evolved from. Ancient civilizations discovered lemon oil’s antiseptic and antibacterial properties early on and often used it to treat diseases. It has been well documented throughout history that it was used to protect against scurvy and lack of vitamin C. In addition, it is now used in various cleaning products for purification, aromatherapy and massage therapy. Lemon oil is made up of limonene, pinene, camphene, sabinene, myrcene, terpinene, linalool, bisabolene, bergamotene, nerol and neral. All these wonderful compounds contribute in a unique way to the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and balancing effects it has on circulation, metabolism and even digestive function. This essential oil necessitates at least 1000 lemons to generate about a pound of usable oil. It is captured by taking the peels and introducing them to a steam or cold-press extraction process. Lemon oil is very bitter and sharp, but its fragrance is incredibly refreshing and invigorating.
Limonene is most commonly found in citrus fruits like oranges, lemons and limes. It is responsible for the citrus aromas. It is regularly used as an ingredient in medicines, as well as products like beverages, chewing gum, fragrances and cleaning supplies. This terpene is widely studied and has proven to contain anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer properties. And it has many other beneficial health applications as well. For the body, limonene is known to foster uplifting mood boosts and works towards reducing stress. It has also shown promise in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety. Limonene has a boiling point of 348.8 ℉ (176 ℃).
Linalool is commonly found in cannabis cultivars and throughout nature. Rosewood, bergamot, coriander, rose, jasmine and lavender are just a few examples. It is prevalent in aromatherapy, in body care products and has been used for medicinal purposes for generations. Linalool is a monoterpene and has many alternative designations such as beta-linalool, linaloyl oxide, linalyl alcohol and p-linalool. Linalool has a pleasant floral lavender scent and produces mood boosts with a sense of relaxation. It has proven to reduce inflammation and relieve inflammatory pain, as well as reducing anxiety, and depression. Linalool has also shown capacity for health benefits such as inhibiting fungal infections and/or fungal growth, more specifically the yeast infection candida. Linalool has a boiling point of 388.4 ℉ (198 °C).
Live Resin
Live resin is a concentrate that is very potent with high THC levels and incredible flavors. It is made from a fresh harvest of uncured cannabis flowers. Many live resin enthusiasts believe that this form of concentrate maintains freshness longer, as well as cannabinoid potency and flavors from the flowers uncured terpene profile. Live resin is made by freezing the uncured, live hemp flowers immediately after harvesting. Specifically, the cannabis is frozen using liquid nitrogen or dry ice to prevent evaporation of the beneficial compounds found in the trichomes. After it is frozen, laboratory technicians use specialized lab equipment to heat butane, BHO or other hydrocarbon solvents. By using intense heat, lab techs are able to administer high amounts of pressure to carefully retrieve the live resin without diminishing its valuable compounds. The finished product typically will appear golden or any variety of the gold color, but sometimes it is white. The color is commonly dependent on the strain of the flower used to make the live resin. The consistency of the substance is similar to oil or sauce and can be quite sticky. The terpenes generally play a role in determining the texture and consistency of the finished product. It is very malleable and so it can be manipulated into different forms. It can be formed to resemble crumble, wax, badder or even diamonds. It can be smoked, vaped, dabbed or used for food recipes. Live resin was first created in 2013 by William Fenger and Jason Emo.
Menthol Topical
Menthol topical is made from the extract of mint oil or it can be man made too. When applied to skin, menthol offers a cooling sensation that works to relieve soreness, minor aches, pains or bruising in muscles and/or joints. If too much menthol topical is applied to the skin, it may cause burning sensations, but will reduce over time. The cooling or warming sensations work to block pain signals in the brain. It also works to reduce inflammation.
A monoterpene is a class of terpenes. Each terpene hydrocarbon is expressed as C5H8. A monoterpene is a hydrocarbon that is expressed as C10H16. This is due to the fact that it contains two isoprene units per molecule. Monoterpenes are more readily reactive to heat and sources of air. This sensitivity is responsible for monoterpenes degrading more quickly over time. But because they are more receptive to heat, it makes them great for vaping, cooking or aromatherapy. Monoterpenes can be found in various fruits, vegetables, spices and herbs including cannabis. The most notable monoterpenes are limonene, pinene, myrcene and terpineol.
Mother Plant
A mother plant is a fully developed cannabis plant that has been used for cuttings in order to plant and grow clones. Mother plants will be the most robust plant in the bunch. It is important that the mother plant be kept in the fertile stage of growth when it is used for clone clippings. The purpose to keep the mother in a vegetative growth stage is due to the issue that taking a cutting from a plant that is flowering may create a clone that evolves into a hermaphroditic plant. A mother plant is important in order to maintain genetic regularity as their clones will typically grow at the same rate as the mother, as well as produce similar bud quantities, similar terpenes percentages and array of cannabinoids.
Myrcene is the most prominent terpene in cannabis and oftentimes is the most dominant. It is known as the active sedating effect in hops, lemongrass and is also found in basil, mangos and its namesake Myrcia Sphaerocarpa. Myrcene imparts relaxing sensations, is a known anti-inflammatory agent and offers genuine pain relief. It’s a boiling point is 332.6 ℉ (167 ℃).
A nug is a term used to describe a beautiful and deliciously sweet smelling piece of hemp flower that has been harvested. Nugs get their color and general size through the genetics of the plant and the cultivation process. The cultivation process includes a host of environmental factors such as environment (indoor / outdoor), soil quality, light source and exposure, and water quality. The most optimal growing situations will typically produce fine, dense and fairly potent nugs. Nug and bud are terms that can be used interchangeably.
Ocimene is a terpene that is found in cannabis cultivars and is also referred to as Beta-Ocimene. It is often an additive to pest repellents, laundry products, body care products, perfumes and hard-surface cleaners. This terpene is considered to be a monoterpene with an aroma profile of earthy herbal sweetness with hints of sour citrus. It is also present in a fairly wide variety of plants such as orchids or in fresh herbs like mint and basil, as well as fruits like mango. Ocimene is said to act as a protective agent against pests. It is widely accepted for its anti-inflammatory and other medicinal properties too. Ocimene has a boiling point of 212 ℉ (100 ℃).
OG is the designated term for a variety of kush phenotypes. Legend has it that OG is a delectable relative of Chemdawg and/or Hindu Kush. It is literally world renowned amongst cannabis connoisseurs as OG has offered up its excellent genetics to a wide array of cultivars. It is often debated what OG stands for. Most folks assume it means “original gangster”, while some others believe it originally stood for “ocean grown.” Either way, it’s an outstanding flower that deserves a place in every bud flower collection and should be enjoyed thoroughly.
Peppermint Oil
Peppermint oil comes from the leaves of the peppermint plant. It is an essential oil containing various compounds. Menthol is just one of the compounds that offers the cool and refreshing qualities of peppermint oil. The peppermint plant is a hybrid combination of the spearmint and water mint plants. Peppermint oil has been used for centuries to help treat a number of conditions including colds, digestive disorders, headaches, irritable or itchy skin and numerous other afflictions. It is often used for aromatherapy by skin application or through a diffuser. Peppermint oil advantages include pain relief, anti-itch, muscle spasm reduction, boosting circulation, killing germs, anti-bacterial / anti-viral properties and much more.
Phenol is also known as carbolic acid and is the most basic form of all the phenol organic compounds. A phenol is considered an aromatic carbon compound. It contains a benzene ring with an added hydroxyl group. Phenol is clear or slightly white and gives off a sweet scent. It is toxic in its raw form, but is safe when diluted and in smaller quantities. It is used to make plastics, nylon, medicines and much more. It is useful in killing germs as well. Phenol compounds occur naturally in nature. Plants containing phenol are mostly considered antioxidants and phenol has been found to contain anticancer properties. It is used in various treatments, medical procedures and used in laboratories. Phenol is for trained professional chemists working in certified clean laboratories. Phenol can be fatal if consumed in its raw form. It can damage skin with direct contact and can cause breathing difficulties if inhaled.
Phenolic Compounds
Phenolic compounds are a class of phenols or phenolics. Their chemical make-up includes one or more hydroxyl groups that bonds to aromatic hydrocarbons. They can range from the most simplest phenolic molecular form, C6 H5 OH, or can occur as highly polymerized compounds. There are an abundance of phenolic compounds in the human diet in the form of phenolic acids (60%) and flavonoids (30%). Hemp plants also contain these bioactive phenolic compounds that include terpenes, flavonoids, phenolic acids, phenol amides, stilbenes and lignanamides.
Polyphenols are a class of organic compounds with molecular structures that contain more than one phenolic group. They are found in plant based foods including flavonoids, phenolic acid, lignans and stilbenes. Polyphenols are quite abundant throughout nature. Around 8000 different types of polyphenols have been identified. Fruit like blueberries and avocado, and legumes like black and white beans are quite high in polyphenols. Honey is also a bountiful source of polyphenols as well and caffeine is considered a polyphenol. Polyphenols offer some anti-inflammation properties.
A pre-roll is a joint that has been rolled for your convenience and enjoyment. It can be rolled with ground bud flower, trim and/or shake, and usually contains a filter (also known as a “crutch). They can be purchased as a single or in packs. Pre-rolls are usually quite affordable and are easily accessible for a multitude of activities including any and all adventures, concerts or weekends at the pad. Pre-rolls are the inexpensive solution to portability and effortless consumption assuming that you have a lighter, matches or a small torch handy. Pre-rolls are available in an assortment of flower strains, and alternate cannabinoids / concentrates.
Hemp is typically weighed in grams, 1/8th’s, quarters and pounds. The term quad is slang for a “quarter ounce”. A quad of bud flower is the equivalent of seven grams and is a happy size bag for any hemp connoisseur.
Resin is a sticky substance produced by various parts of the cannabis plant, but is mostly concentrated and secreted by the trichomes on the plant. The resin is a natural protectant of the hemp plant from UV light, as well as a guard against pests that are desperate for a nibble. Plants rich with resin contain potent levels of cannabinoids and terpenes. It is considered to be the most valuable part of the flower in that it can be enjoyed by smoking or vaping the flower and it makes exceptional extracts such as isolate powder, distillate, crumble, wax, shatter or diamonds. The term “resin” is used also in reference to a leftover tar residue in a pipe, bowl, rig or on a roach. Resin in a bowl can be scraped and smoked, but will be harsh and should only be enjoyed in dire situations when flower or other concentrates are not readily available.
Rosemary Essential Oil
Rosemary or Rosmarinus Officinalis is an herb that is native to the Mediterranean region. It is a part of the Mint plant family whose other members include basil, lavender, myrtle and sage. Its many uses can be traced back to ancient Greece and has been used in several civilizations throughout the world. Throughout time it has been adopted for religious ceremonies and aromatherapy. It is also used in cosmetics, like massage balms, for its anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Rosemary oil consists of pinene, camphor, 11 eucalyptol, camphene, limonene and linalool. It is often an ingredient in analgesic lotions or balms for treatment of dry or oily skin, eczema symptoms, inflammation and more. It seems to also be a rejuvenating ingredient in face masks, toners and soaps. Rosemary essential oil is mostly derived from the flower tops of the plant, but can also be obtained from the leaves and stems. When the flower is dried, the oil is then extracted through steam distillation. Rosemary oil is similar to mint, but not as peppery. It is also earthy with hints of citrus and herbs.
A salve is an ointment with many uses, but they are used particularly to soothe the surface of the skin. It is typically a natural remedy for skin conditions such as itchy or dry skin, infections from wounds, sunburns, pain from muscle soreness and more. A salve protects skin with nourishment in order to make it stronger, more supple and overall healthier. There are a variety of ingredients that can be found in salves. They often include a combination of a diverse array of herbs, beeswax, coconut oil, olive oil, almond oil and various other essential oils. Many of the key ingredients in salves are usually rich in antioxidants and vitamins. The antioxidants work to protect skin cells from damage while the vitamins are necessary in every living organism to function properly. This will make skin less likely to be overly dry or split easily. For thousands of years humans have made salves using a variety of ingredients and their ingenuity to relieve an array of minor or major skin conditions, injuries or infections.
A sesquiterpene is a class of terpenes. Each terpene hydrocarbon is expressed as C5H8. A sesquiterpene is expressed as C15H24. This is due to the fact that it contains three isoprene units per molecule. With three isoprene units, the compound becomes slightly more durable than a terpene or monoterpene. Due to this, the compound is slightly more stable, which means they oxidize at much slower rates. This allows for their aromas to remain potent for much longer periods of time. Sesquiterpenes have been linked in several studies to analgesic and antimicrobial properties. And they have shown to reduce inflammation and neurodegeneration. The most common sesquiterpenes are beta-caryophyllene, farnesol and alpha-humulene.
A spliff is a roll that contains a mix of hemp flower and tobacco rolled in wide, king or cone rolling papers. The ratio of hemp and tobacco can be modified according to the smoker and the vibes. For those who enjoy both hemp and tobacco, spliffs are ideal for a nice rush with double the flavor and a sweet long-lasting buzz. Spliffs are great for everyday solo missions or for making friends at group campsites.
Sub-ohm Tank
A sub-ohm tank is also referred to as a sub-tank or tank. It is designed with a mouthpiece, tank and airflow vents, plus a heating coil, and it stores e-liquid. Sub-ohm tanks provide a direct to lung vaping experience. It uses low-resistance coils and necessitates a high powered mod. Sub-ohm infers resistance below 1.0 ohms. With a lower resistance, e-liquid becomes very hot and creates large amounts of vapor.
Terpenes are aromatic compounds that supply aromas and flavors in cannabis, all other plants and a variety of organisms. Not only are terpenes major contributors to the aroma and flavors experienced when consuming cannabis, but they also influence the effect by interacting with cannabinoids. Terpenes form inside of cannabis trichomes. Their development is directly affected by the spectrum and intensity of light exposure. Each strain of cannabis has its own unique aroma due to its specific terpene content. Terpenes can deliver to your palate the flavors we know as citrus, diesel, hashish, woody, pine, skunky, coffee, spicy, herbal or tropical-like flavors. In addition to providing flavors and aromas, terpenes act as a type of support to other cannabis molecules to produce a full “entourage effect” one might feel when cannabis is introduced to their system. Depending on the exact combination of terpenes and cannabinoids, there can be one of two results in effects. One would be an exaggeration of effects or the second would be a suppression of effects. This is highly dependent upon the flower strain, as well as the individual taking it. With more research being conducted, evidence shows that terpenes can play a substantial role in mitigating intoxicating effects of THC and also forms a collaboration with cannabinoids, which results in an increase in the therapeutic value. It is important to remember that aroma and flavor are subjective in nature. What appeals to some may not be appealing to others. Terpenes are basically the primary component of essential oils and are responsible for the regeneration, oxygenation and immunity defense of the plant. Further research is being conducted to understand the effects of cannabis terpenes in comparison to the terpenes found in other plants. Terpenes do not have intoxicating effects on their own.
Terpinolene is a terpene that is commonly found in cannabis cultivars, but in very small amounts. It is also naturally present in rosemary, lilacs and conifer trees, as well as in some fruit and spices such as apples, nutmeg and cumin. It is considered to be a cyclic monoterpene whose fresh scent presents as a soft herbal bouquet filled with notes of pine and citrus. Terpinolene is often an added ingredient in various soaps and perfumes. Researchers continue to test possible effects and benefits of terpinolene. It has proven to have sedative properties, as well as antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Terpinolene has a boiling point of 365 ℉ (185 ℃).
Tetrahydrocannabinol acetate, or THC-O, is most commonly referred to as THC-O, but is also referred to as THC-O-Acetate or ATHC. It is important to not confuse ATHC with THCa. THCa is a tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, which is a parent molecule to THC. The major difference between the ATHC and THCa is that the “A” in ATHC is for acetate and the “a\\\'\\\' in THCa is for acid. THCa naturally occurs in raw cannabis and converts to THC through a process known as decarboxylation. THC-O is not a naturally occurring cannabinoid and can only be made in a laboratory setting. THC-O molecules are much more potent than smoked, vaped, dabbed or orally consumed THC. So despite how the body filters the molecules, the portion that is able to travel beyond the brain barrier will provide a very strong experience. It is recommended that users start with a very small dose and increase dosages slowly to test their comfort levels. The experience that users have often reported after consuming THC-O is akin to a hallucinogenic experience induced by psilocybin.
Tetrahydocannabinolic acid or THCA is the non-intoxicating acidic form of THC. As the hemp plant matures, its buds begin to grow. As the buds grow, its cannabinoid and terpene content also develops. This process always begins with the CBGA compound. Scientists consider CBGA to be the “mother of all cannabinoids” due to the process of it breaking down to produce primary compounds, THCA and CBDA. THCA has a different molecular makeup than THC and is not intoxicating when ingested due to its additional carboxyl ring. This is what prevents it from binding to CB receptors throughout the body. THCA is found in abundance in raw cannabis and it does naturally over time convert to THC as the flower is harvested and dried. However, when THCA experiences direct exposure to heat through cooking, smoking, vaping or dabbing, it loses its acidic form by the removal of the carboxyl ring and converts into THC. This process is called decarboxylation. THCA can be consumed raw too. It is often used for wellness regimens and consumed similar to vitamins. It has been found to have potential anti-inflammatory / anti-nausea properties and may be a promising neuroprotective compound. It also may be helpful for conditions such as colitis and IBS.
Tetrahydrocannabihexol, also referred to as THCH or THC-H, is a cannabinoid recently discovered in cannabis sativa by a team of Italian chemists in 2020. The team was able to identify very small concentrations of the naturally occurring compound by isolating it from the FM2 hemp plant used in their research. Up until this discovery, THCH was not known to exist as a naturally occurring compound in the hemp plant and was already established as an isomer of a synthetic cannabinoid known as parahexyl. Research shows the brain's CB1 receptors receive THCH with a much more accentuated response, which results in a much more intense high. Some say the potency is as much as 25 times stronger than delta 9 THC. Users have reported that THCH is very psychoactive and gives a full-bodied euphoria that is different from all of the other cannabinoids. But because THCH only occurs in certain strains, there is far too little of it to circulate for mass distribution. It is for this reason that nearly all THCH products on the market are made with synthesized concentrate made using high amounts of delta 8-THC. It is known chemically as Δ8-THCH, and it is a very potent derivative of delta 8.
THCjd is a naturally occurring cannabinoid found in miniscule amounts in cannabis or hemp plants. The -jd in the name THC-jd comes from the octyl group attached to the THC molecule. THCjd is chemically known as tetrahydrocannabioctyl and perhaps even more specifically as Δ9-THCjd due to the fact that it is a very potent form of delta-9 THC. THCjd has been found to have an alkyl side-chain containing eight carbon atoms. This long side chain enables a more easily accessible binding to CB1 receptors. The more carbon atoms on the side-chains of cannabinoids seems to allow for a much stronger attraction to receptor sites, which supports a uniquely stronger high. THCjd is speculated to be around 19x stronger than regular delta-9 THC, but more research is needed to confirm effects and benefits of THCjd. Due to the minimal natural bearing of THCjd in hemp plants, THCjd concentrate is synthesized through an isomerization process using CBD concentrate.
THCM or 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic Acid (Carboxy-THC), is known as a cannabis byproduct at this time. THCM has never been found in cannabis or isolated. The compound was recognized in 1997 and is not considered a cannabinoid, but a cannabis byproduct that presents in cannabis smoke. Scientists have yet to test any potential benefits for lack of identifying or isolating the compound within the plant. It is not known whether THCM is psychoactive. Researchers speculate that it may act as a “potentiator.” This distinction asserts that the THCM is a type of compound that performs the task of boosting effects of other compounds it has exposure to. It has been used as a biomarker to discover if a fetus has been exposed to cannabis smoke in the womb for up to five months before birth. More research is necessary to accurately classify its status within the hemp plant.
Tetrahydrocannabiphorol, or THCP, is one of the hundreds of compounds that the cannabis plant produces in their resin filled trichomes. THCP is found in tiny quantities. More studies are being conducted on this newly found cannabinoid THCP. The effects are found to be somewhat identical to Delta 9-THC, but with much more added potency. Researchers believe that THCP is as much as 30 times more potent than THC. THCP paired with other cannabinoids and terpenes has the potential to produce a substantial amount of pain relief or an effective sleep aid. Effects will vary throughout energizing, soothing or sedating. If effects are similar then it must be recognized that commonly known THC side-effects may occur as well. Use of THCP requires careful doses and should be monitored carefully to maximize benefits and diminish side-effects.
Tetrahydrocannabivarin, or THCV, is a compound found in minimal amounts within cannabis sativa strains. It offers an array of effects and benefits that are unique from other cannabinoids such as THC or CBD. In small to medium doses, THCV does not deliver identical psychoactive properties that THC imparts. With higher doses, THCV does prove to offer its own unique psychoactive characteristics. It is said to produce a clear euphoric state of mind. THCV has the ability to bind to both CB1 and CB2 receptors of the body’s Endocannabinoid system (ECS). Due to the fact that THCV is found in very low quantities in sativa strains, it is mainly available through extraction in the form of distillate.
U.S. Hemp
In 2018, the United States established hemp as a federally legal and regulated commodity. With a set of federal checks and balances, authorized hemp farmers have been permitted to enact hemp production throughout the United States for the use in several varieties of products. Hemp can be used in food products, health products, fabrics and rope, and so much more. Human creativity is literally the vastness in which this plant can soar. U.S. Hemp is cannabis sativa and is also referred to as industrial hemp. It has been mandated that it only contains 0.03 percent or less THC by dry weight.
Uplift is a swift emerging sensation of positivity and dopamine that can be felt physically, emotionally, spiritually or all at once. It also happens to be a great descriptive word for the euphoric and happy effects one may feel subsequently after ingesting hemp products. Effects are definitely subjective, but the uplift feels is undeniable.
A vape is a device that heats up microscopic particles in a liquid in order to create vapor to inhale. A vape is a handheld device and is also called an electronic cigarette or e-cig, They come in countless designs that include cig-a-likes, vape pens, pod mods, box mods and mech mods. There are also “desktop” vaporizers such as the longtime favorite, the Volcano Vaporizer or the Arizer Extreme Q. Vape devices can have set temperatures or variable voltage for versatility, which means higher levels of functionality, performance and flavor transfer.
Vape Juice
Vape juice is a liquid that is made to be vaporized and inhaled. Other names for vape juice are e-juice or e-liquid. Vape juice often contains water, nicotine, propylene glycol (PG), vegetable glycerin (VG) or glycerol and other chemicals to create flavors. Vape juice is also made with hemp cannabinoid extracts that do not include nicotine.
Vape Pod System
A vape pod system is a small vaping device that consists of a battery and a pod. The pod contains a heating coil and is where the e-liquid is stored. Vape pod designs will vary. Some pods are good for a certain amount of refills before the coil burns out, but they are often replaceable. Other pods are designed with replaceable coils, while others are disposable pre-filled pods with various e-liquids.
Vitamin C
Vitamin C is also known as ascorbic acid. It is a water soluble nutrient found in several types of foods. It is an antioxidant and works to protect cells from the damage free radicals can cause. Topical vitamin C has been studied and is supported by many dermatologists. It has shown to slow the aging of skin, prevents sun damage and works to improve overall skin appearance. It can also help reduce wrinkles, dark spots and acne. It helps with these conditions through its anti-inflammatory properties that work to reduce too much oil production in the skin. Topical Vitamin C can be directly applied to the skin, but it is best to check for skin sensitivity prior to applying a thick layer.
Vitamin E
Vitamin E is a fat soluble vitamin that acts as an antioxidant to help protect cells from damage. It is found in our skin oil and works to create a natural barrier to retain moisture in the skin. Topical vitamin E protects the top and middle layers of the skin. Too much vitamin E means that the skin will be too oily. It is an anti-inflammatory agent in the skin as well that works to prevent damage after too much UV exposure or for skin swelling or thickness, erythema or reddening of the skin and edema. It has shown to help with skin aging too. Topical product labels often list vitamin E as “tocopherol” or “tocotrienol”. Topical Vitamin E can be directly applied to the skin, but it is best to check for skin sensitivity prior to applying a thick layer.
Wax is a cannabis concentrate that appears soft and waxlike. The extraction process for wax involves butane or other hydrocarbon solvents. Wax has the capability of forming in diverse textures and is also referred to as honeycomb, crumble wax, butter and badder as well. Extracts such as wax are highly potent and can offer quick relief of various symptoms. It can be smoked, dabbed, vaporized or can be added to bud flower bowls, joints and blunts.
Xanthan Gum
Xanthan Gum, pronounced “zan-than”, is a polysaccharide that is made with a specific fermentation process using glucose and sucrose. Xanthan is a food additive that emulsifies, binds and/or thickens recipes. It is typically used in baked goods, salad dressings, ice cream, sauces and numerous other products. Xanthan gum aids in preventing oil separation and helps to provide a smoother consistency in the foods it is added to. It also helps to keep foods from drying out too quickly. Xanthan is often used in hemp gummies and syrups.
Ya Hemi
Ya Hemi, also known as Yahemi, is considered a hybrid strain that is cultivated through the crossing of the Melonatta and Project 4516 strains. Yahemi is quite flavorful with sweet plum, citrus and earthy flavors. Nugs are fluffy yet dense with a light brushing of trichomes and orange hairs. Effects are often touted as euphoria inducing with uplifting mood boosts and a sense of focus. Ya Hemi potency ranges from 13% to as much as 20% Delta 9-THC and around 3.5% total terpenes. The most dominant terpenes in this strain are Limonene, Linalool and ꞵ-Caryophyllene, which accounts for the energetic mood lifts with a bit of chill to ward off feelings of anxiety.
Yocan Technology Co., Ltd is a manufacturer of vaporizers located in Shenzhen, China. The company originated around 2013 and has been designing superior vaping devices ever since. Yocan strongly promotes vaping as a healthier alternative to smoking. In order for their healthier alternative message to be received well, they believe elevating every vape experience is essential. To ensure these proper elevation levels, Yocan enlists a distinguished team of research and development professionals, and guarantees “Top level craftsmanship and quality standards” are a mandatory part of their operations. Get a hold of a Yocan vape device and discover top notch versatility with various temperature settings and incredible flavor transfer for the most satisfying hits imaginable.
Zawtz is a modern creation of a three-way cross of Zkittlez, Gelatti and King Louie Xiii OG. It comes from a breeder based in Colorado called Cannarado. They are known for producing a load of top shelf breeds/seeds that are high quality and most importantly, consistently awesome. Zawtz presents a lemony sour diesel aroma and a sweet earthy sour citrus flavor. Buds are fluffy light green nugs with orange hairs and a light dusting of crystally trichomes. Zawtz is reported to be quite potent, but calming and relaxing with a nice mood boost. Zawtz is a great strain for chill evenings or right before bedtime.
Zig-Zag is a French company that specializes in hand rolling products for tobacco. The company was founded in 1855 by Maurice and Jacques Braunstein. They invented the process of “interleaving” rolling papers and named it Zig-Zag after the zigzagging of the alternating packaging process. The company specializes in rolling papers, cigarette tubes and smoking accessories. Zig-Zag products are often used for rolling joints and blunts.
Zoap is a hybrid weed strain made by crossing Rainbow Sherbet and Pink Guava. This evenly balanced powerhouse has a quick onset, bringing waves of euphoria and positivity. Zoap can have sweet, fruity flavors of citrus or cherry, with some earthy undertones. (per Leafly, 2023)
Submitted by: Boden M

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